Advancing Electronic Literature through Collaboration and Innovation

The Electronic Literature Organization

The ELO brings together authors, artists, teachers, developers, and scholars to promote the study of electronic literature. It also supports the development of new literary forms.

The organization defines electronic literature as “digital born” works that depend on computing technology to function. For example, the poem Dakota uses Adobe Flash software to create a narrative as the words, rhythmically cued to a frantic solo by a jazz drummer, flash rapidly on the screen.

Preservation, Archiving and Dissemination (PAD) Project

The Library of Congress’s Periodicals Portal, for example, offers a digital alternative to original volumes that have become too fragile or brittle to handle. The portal allows users to search and view the content of each issue and read a transcription of the text.

Digital archiving is translation: it models handwritten, printed, and recorded materials as multilayered documentary and critical simulations of external relations, while also modeling the internal order that reconfigures those material representations. The resulting archive order is simultaneously a multilayered structure of data, an aggregate of multiple digital surrogates, and an investigation into the possibilities of remediated digital representation and database design.

Becoming more sustainable requires a major shift in thinking about what archivists do. It will require that we move beyond a paradigm of preservation as backup, to one in which the primary mission is to keep the past alive in the future.

e(X)literature Conference

The conference features students who present their essays, poems and other creative works, and provides an opportunity to network with fellow undergraduate Literature students. Students also participate in virtual sessions led by acclaimed authors, editors and writing professionals.

The lead author of a poster or abstract should attend the conference to present it, but in some cases, this role may be filled by another member of the society sponsoring the submission or by a local presenter. In these circumstances, the author list should clearly state the non-author presenter or sponsor, and the title of the presentation should be amended accordingly.

In addition to presenting their research, participants will discuss ways in which Electronic Literature lends itself to pedagogical experimentation and the potential for multi-modal teaching and learning.

ELO Directory

Document paths specify where ELO stores files on a storage medium. You can change the settings for these paths in the lower Administration area. For example, you can set up a new document path, make moved media accessible again, or check the free space on a storage medium. The changes you make here are personal and only affect your own workspaces. You must have the permission Change document paths to edit these settings. Your system administrator can assign this permission to you.

Default document path: Enter the path on the file system where you want to store documents. You can also select whether or not you want to use the path as a backup path. This option is only available for directories of up to 64k documents.

ELO Repository

The ELO Repository collects and hosts online journals, works of electronic literature, and community archives. It also houses the metadata for 25 collections of born digital media. The metadata is then used to make the works viewable in their native software environments.

SMEs require intuitive operation and economical software solutions that are easily extendable. The ELOprofessional and ELOenterprise suites optimally meet these demands with a modular structure, sophisticated permission options, and a high degree of configuration flexibility.

The MobileConnector allows you to capture paper documents and files with your smartphone and file them directly in the repository via drag-and-drop. Moreover, it is easy to process incoming e-mails with ELOoffice. This way, all important information is immediately available, even outside the office. The ELO Scan&Archive function automatically files recurring documents and e-mails in the repository.

Click for additional reading

Read More

A Harmony of Excitement and Serenity: Experience the Magic of 안전놀이터

Title: Discover the Charm of 안전놀이터 – Your Ultimate Destination for Fun and Safety

Have you ever stumbled upon a place where the thrill of play meets the serenity of safety? Imagine a playground where the echoes of laughter are as vivid as the assurance of well-being. Welcome to the world of 안전놀이터 – a sanctuary where enjoyment and protection harmonize to craft the perfect environment for both the young and the young at heart.

As you step into the grounds of an 안전놀이터, the first thing that greets you is the meticulous design aimed at preventing accidents. The colorful, cushioned surfaces invite you to explore without the shadow of worry. Every swing, slide, and seesaw is a testament to the commitment to safety. It’s here that parents can take a breather, knowing their kids are in a space that’s as secure as it is delightful.

But 안전놀이터 isn’t merely a haven for children. It embodies a concept that caters to all ages, encouraging community interaction, physical activity, and the joy of being outdoors. Whether you’re looking to reconnect with your childhood innocence or to spend quality time with family, an 안전놀이터 offers a slice of paradise in the hustle of everyday life.

Through the lens of SEO and content mastery, one might wonder how such places maintain their allure in the digital age. The answer lies in their timeless appeal and the universal desire for a safe play haven. As traditional as they might seem, 안전놀이터s evolve with technology, ensuring they offer contemporary safety features that keep them a step ahead. It’s a perfect blending of heritage and innovation.

As our experience draws to a close, remember that the magic of 안전놀이터 is just a visit away. It’s a place where every laughter-filled moment is wrapped in the blanket of trust. Here, memories are etched not just in our minds but also in the confidence that safety is never compromised.


1. What does 안전놀이터 mean?
Answer: 안전놀이터 translates to ‘safe playground’ in English, emphasizing a play space designed with the utmost safety in mind.

2. Who can enjoy an 안전놀이터?
Answer: An 안전놀이터 is suitable for individuals of all ages, providing a secure environment for children to play and adults to relax or engage in community activities.

3. How does an 안전놀이터 ensure safety?
Answer: 안전놀이터s are constructed with safety materials, including shock-absorbent flooring and secure equipment. Regular maintenance and inspections also contribute to their safety.

4. Can an 안전놀이터 be found in any country?
Answer: Yes, many countries have adopted the concept of 안전놀이터s, understanding the importance of safe play areas for communities.

5. Why are 안전놀이터s important for families?
Answer: 안전놀이터s provide a stress-free environment where families can bond and children can develop physically and socially without the risk of injury, making them crucial for community well-being.

Wind up your day basking in the essence of an 안전놀이터, where every second is a dance between excitement and serenity.…

Read More

Uncover the Thrilling World of Online Gaming with Evolution Powerball Broadcasts.

When you’re delving into the thrilling world of online gaming, few experiences match the heart-pumping excitement offered by 에볼루션파워볼 중계, or Evolution Powerball broadcasts. This digital sensation has taken the gaming community by storm, tapping into the thrill of chance and the strategy of seasoned gaming.

Picture this: a platform where the enigmatic dance of numbered balls decides your fate, all while you’re comfortably seated at home. Evolution Powerball broadcasts bring this scene to life, streaming the action right to your screen with crystal-clear precision.

The allure lies in its simplicity. Just like in the classic lottery game, players choose their lucky numbers and hold their breath as each ball is drawn. But it’s the immediacy and the connectivity of the online experience that heighten the drama. You’re not just a spectator; you’re an active participant in a community of fellow enthusiasts, all hinging their hopes on the next number revealed.

At its core, Evolution Powerball is a game of probability, and part of its charm is the unpredictability. However, patterns and strategies do emerge for the eagle-eyed player. Analyzing past draws, recognizing trends, and making calculated decisions can give you an edge. But remember, in the end, Lady Luck has the final say.

Much of the fun comes from the suspense, but also from the environment. The smooth interface and the tension-building soundtrack amplify each moment leading up to the draw. This polished experience doesn’t just happen; it takes a village of developers, designers, and engineers to bring Evolution Powerball to life, ensuring each game is fair, random, and reliable.

Concluding, the Evolution Powerball broadcast isn’t just about the potential rewards; it’s about the journey, the community, and the anticipation that builds with every draw. It’s a modern twist on a classic game that continues to captivate gamers worldwide.


1. What is 에볼루션파워볼 중계?
에볼루션파워볼 중계, or Evolution Powerball broadcast, is an online streaming service for the Powerball lottery game, which allows players to participate and view live draws over the internet.

2. How does the game work?
Players select their preferred numbers and wait as the draw occurs during the broadcast. If the drawn numbers match the player’s selection, they win.

3. Is there a strategy to increase my chances of winning?
While primarily a game of chance, players analyze past results and trends to make more informed guesses, though there’s no strategy that guarantees winning.

4. Can I participate in Evolution Powerball from any country?
Participation depends on local gambling laws, so it’s crucial to check if online lottery services like Evolution Powerball are permitted in your jurisdiction.

5. How do I know that the game is fair?
Evolution Powerball employs rigorous testing and auditing to ensure random and unbiased results, utilizing certified random number generators and being subject to oversight by gaming authorities.…

Read More

The Meaning and Categories of Literature

What is Literature Meaning in English?

Literature is any written work that has artistic and intellectual value. It can be found in many different forms and genres, and is used to convey important ideas and messages to readers.

The term literature comes from the Latin word litera, which means “writing formed with letters.” It can include poetry, drama, fiction and nonfiction.

Definition of Literature

Literature, at its simplest, refers to any written work. It can also be defined more narrowly as writings that possess artistic and cultural merit, which may be separated into major categories such as poetry, fiction and drama.

For many critics, determining what makes something Literature involves establishing a canon. A work can be called Literature if it is included in this canon and if it is well-received by readers and critics. But this approach has its problems. Not all canonical works are considered to have lasting value, and a book like Herman Melville’s Moby-Dick, which was not well received when it first appeared in 1851, has now found a place in the literary canon.

More recent approaches to defining literature are more subjective. They try to identify prototypical characteristics that most literary works share. These include a focus on the use of language, adherence to literary genres and styles, and the use of figurative language.

Time Periods of Literature

Literature is categorized into different time periods or epochs. These eras are based on the social and cultural influences of a particular period. These eras are also grouped according to their philosophy or ideology, aesthetic, and school of thought.

For example, during the Victorian era, the novel became a popular literary genre. This was due to the influence of industrialization and the rapid upheavals of society. The era was marked by the rise of women as authors and readers. It was also the time of such famous works as Dickens’ A Christmas Carol, Rudyard Kipling’s Kim and the Jungle Book, and Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass.

Other important literature periods include the Renaissance, and the Modernist and Postmodernist eras. The last of these eras is harder to define, but can be classified as a reaction against the previous one, with such works as Joseph Heller’s Catch-22 and Sylvia Plath’s The Bell Jar.

Characteristics of Literature

The term literature, etymologically at least, has something to do with letters, or writing. It is an art form which, according to many theories, foregrounds language in ways that are artistic. But the line between what constitutes literature and other forms of written communication can be a fine one. For example, a literary work may be a book such as the works of Shakespeare or Webster but might also include some legislative statutes of parliaments, the poems of Shelley and Marvell or the private letters of V. S. Naipaul.

The characteristics of literature are often grouped into four categories — plot, setting, characterization and theme. Plot deals with occurrences in a piece of literature; setting deals with where these occurrences happen; characterization deals with the people involved in these occurrences; and theme talks about how the occurrences are connected to each other. The other main feature of literature is figurative language. This involves creating images that reflect the way we perceive and experience our lives.

Themes in Literature

A literary theme is a meaningful main idea that the author explores in a story. It can be expressed through various characters, actions, and settings in the novel. The themes in literature may be major or minor, and they can relate to a variety of topics. Some popular literature themes include love, good vs. evil, and redemption.

Themes in literature often involve the human experience, such as the struggle of an individual against society or their own expectations. This may be explored through the theme of innocence vs experience, such as in William Golding’s “Lord of the Flies” where young boys stranded on an island gradually lose their childhood innocence and become violent savages, or in Ray Bradbury’s “Fahrenheit 451” where an individual struggles between conformity and rebellion.

Other common literature themes explore fundamental concepts of life, such as death and rebirth. Themes can also be found in the complexities of relationships and betrayal, such as in Shakespeare’s Macbeth or in Jane Austen’s “Pride and Prejudice” where social class limitations restrict the Bennet sisters’ marriage prospects.

Return to the home screen

Read More

The NBA중계: An Immersive Adventure.

The thrill of basketball is a universal sensation, with the National Basketball Association (NBA) at its pinnacle. Fans worldwide tune in to catch the mesmerizing plays, awe-inspiring dunks, and buzzer-beating thrillers. Taking center stage is the NBA중계 (NBA broadcast), a lifeline for audiences who breathe and live the excitement of the game, despite being oceans away from the actual hardwood courts where legends are made.

Imagine the anticipation that builds up before each game. Just like a finely-tuned orchestra, each pass, each shot, each defensive stop plays its part in the symphony of a basketball match. It’s not merely a game; it’s a narrative unfolding in real-time. The characters? The players themselves, each with a backstory, dreams, and a relentless drive to win. Witnessing these warriors of the court display their finesse and athleticism is nothing short of breathtaking.

The NBA isn’t just about the game; it’s a cultural phenomenon. It transcends sport, influencing fashion, music, and entertainment. Superstars like LeBron James, Stephen Curry, and Kevin Durant are more than athletes; they are icons of determination and excellence. But it’s not only about the marquee names – it’s the underdogs, the rookies, the veterans, each contributing to the rich tapestry that is the NBA.

Now, let’s dive into the heart of it all: the NBA중계. In Korea, basketball enthusiasts clamor to find the best way to witness the magic of the NBA. With modern technology, fans don’t have to rely solely on cable TV; they can access streaming services that offer real-time games, comprehensive highlights, and in-depth analyses. Platforms dedicated to NBA broadcasts tailor their content for the die-hard fans, offering an array of multi-angle views, expert commentary, and interactive features.

As the game clock winds down and the pressure mounts, every dribble and every screen matters in the pursuit of victory. The audience is not just watching; they are part of the journey, experiencing each emotion as if seated courtside. Accessibility to NBA중계 elevates this experience, making geographical barriers insignificant.

In conclusion, the allure of NBA중계 goes beyond mere viewership; it’s an immersive adventure. The blend of elite competition, cultural impact, and technological advancement has cemented the NBA’s status as a global sports titan. Through the lens of NBA중계, fans are not just spectators; they’re participants in a global community united by their passion for basketball.


1. What makes NBA중계 so important for Korean NBA fans?
NBA중계 is crucial for Korean fans as it bridges the gap between time zones and geographical locations, allowing fans to enjoy live games and feel connected to the action despite the distance.

2. Can you find English commentary on NBA중계 in Korea?
Yes, many NBA broadcast services in Korea offer English commentary options for international fans.

3. Are there subscription services in Korea specifically for NBA중계?
Yes, there are various subscription-based services that specialize in NBA broadcasts, ensuring access to live games and related content for Korean fans.

4. Can fans interact with NBA중계?
Yes, some NBA중계 platforms provide interactive features like live chats, forums, and social media integration, enhancing the fan experience.

5. Do these broadcasts show all NBA games?
Most NBA중계 services aim to show a broad selection of games, including regular season, playoffs, and the NBA Finals, covering the full spectrum of the season’s excitement.…

Read More

An Invaluable Resource for AP Literature and Composition: A Thematic Approach to Literary Analysis

AP Literature and Composition Textbook

Whether you’re looking for a study guide for AP English Literature or simply need help reviewing the course materials, a prep book can be an invaluable resource. These books typically include content review, practice tests, and more.

This literature and composition textbook introduces students to the important tools of literary analysis, and emphasizes the connection between style and meaning.


The only text designed specifically for AP students, Literature and Composition features a unique combination of high-quality literature selections and all the support students need to develop their reading, writing, and analysis skills. The book is organized thematically to put meaning first, ensuring that students will have access to a variety of amazing literature while honing their skills for the exam and assignments.

The new fourth edition offers more learning helps and a full-color Student Workbook, which is a great place for students to “do their work” as they study the literary selections. It also provides worktext space for all of the essential exercises and a range of additional, fun/reinforcement activities.

A teacher’s guide provides planning tools, teaching ideas, notes on potential pitfalls for students, close reading suggestions, and other critical classroom resources. Updated context links and resources are also included on the companion EIL website.


A story’s themes are the underlying messages or universal truths explored in literary works. These themes are deeper than plot and character; they address societal issues or human experiences, providing readers insights into the complexity of life.

Some popular themes are good versus evil, antagonism and altruism, love and relationships, and loss of innocence. Stories centered around these topics resonate with students because they are relatable and timeless.

In addition to exploring these important ideas, readers learn how authors communicate them through characterization, setting, symbolism and imagery, close reading, and an analysis of poetry. This edition also features a new chapter on analyzing visuals and includes an annotated Teacher’s Edition with practical planning tools, teaching ideas, notes on potential pitfalls for students, and an ExamView test bank of simulated AP questions.


Characterization involves the depiction of characters in a narrative, and it is an important part of literary analysis. Through characterization, readers can gain insights into the complexities of human emotions, relationships, and universal themes that connect humans across time and space. Characters also serve as vehicles for exploring the author’s thematic and narrative intentions, allowing readers to interpret and analyze the layers of meaning in a text. Characters can be directly described through physical attributes, mannerisms, or speech and dialogue, and readers can infer their traits and qualities from actions, reactions, inner thoughts, and reflections. Characters can also be indirectly described through symbolic or allegorical means. This fourth edition of the best-selling AP Literature textbook puts ideas first and provides additional learning helps and a new pacing chart for each module, along with updated context links and resources.


The setting of a story or poem is the physical location and time period in which it takes place. It can also refer to the character’s societal and cultural environment, including customs, beliefs, and values.

A well-developed setting often reflects and emphasizes character. For example, the furniture arrangement and wall decorations of a character’s room can reveal their personality and values. A character’s social, economic, and political context affects characterization as well.

Real settings add verisimilitude and authenticity to a story by allowing readers to imagine (or visit) the places where characters live, work, and play. However, writers of real settings must pay special attention to ensure their descriptions are accurate and authentic. This is especially important when writing about unfamiliar locales. The smallest inaccuracies could throw local readers out of the story.

Theme Analysis

Defining themes requires a close analysis of the many data items that comprise each theme. To make the process easier for students, the authors break each theme into several distinct components.

For example, to examine the theme of love and relationships, students will look at how characters contribute to this exploration and explore what thematic ideas they encapsulate or challenge. They will also consider how imagery and symbolism deepen the meaning of a work or evoke specific emotions.

The AP framework in this book supports the development of skills that are critical for college-preparatory literature courses, including analyzing and responding to texts. It also encourages student learning that is kairotic and constructive.

Click to get more information

Read More

Choosing Between AP Literature and AP Language

AP Literature Vs AP Language

Choosing between AP Literature and AP Language can be a challenge, especially for students who aren’t sure what they want to major in college. But knowing what the classes are about can help you make the right decision.

For starters, consider what types of books you like to read and whether you want to study fiction or nonfiction. Also, look at the class syllabi provided by the College Board.

What is AP Literature?

AP Literature covers a wider range of fiction, focusing on literary devices like character development, plot, and theme. You’ll also analyze the way that poems and passages are structured. This might be a familiar subject for you, as previous English classes might have covered many of these topics.

Alternatively, AP Language and Composition deconstructs rhetorical strategies used in non-fiction works. These could be journalism, memoirs, essays, satire, or even comics. It might be a new experience, but a useful skill for college and beyond.

On the exam, you’ll answer 55 multiple choice questions (45% of your score) and write three essay prompts (55% of your score). The essay prompts will ask you to compare excerpts from different sources with a focus on writing that uses “close reading and thoughtful rhetorical analysis.” It’s important to know which works have comparable literary merit for this section. You’ll not be given the full text of these excerpts, so you must be prepared to read extensively from the list of works provided.

What is AP Language?

AP Language is a writing-intensive class that studies nonfiction literature and rhetorical techniques. Students will write free-response essays with different aims, including to explain an idea, argue for a position, or persuade readers.

The AP language exam consists of two reading passages and three writing passages. The multiple-choice questions account for 45% of your score, while the essay portion carries 55%.

AP language has a broad scope that will help you in many majors, such as science or engineering. However, if you know you want to focus on the arts or humanities, then a class with a deeper focus in literary analysis might be better for you. You’ll still gain valuable writing skills in a poetry appreciation or prose novel analysis class, but the subject matter will be more specific.

What is the Difference Between the Two?

Ultimately, the decision between taking AP Literature or AP Language comes down to your preferences, strengths and career aspirations. Both classes are difficult and require hard work and dedication. It also depends on the quality of the teacher.

AP Literature involves reading and writing about fiction, poetry, and drama from different periods and cultures. The course requires a good understanding of literary devices like allegory and hyperbole. It also requires an ability to understand and analyze themes, motifs, and symbols.

AP Language examines non-fiction texts from different fields and disciplines. The class teaches students to write commentaries on these texts and evaluate the author’s point of view, style, organization and tone. It’s important to understand how these elements influence a text’s meaning and purpose in order to be able to critique it. The class will also teach students to use a variety of rhetorical strategies, including ethos, pathos and logos. It is important to understand these concepts so that you can write persuasive essays.

Which Course is Right for Me?

There are a few key factors to consider when choosing which AP English class to take. First, consider which kind of reading and writing you enjoy more. While a strong interest in both is necessary for success in both classes, it may be more manageable for some students to focus on one type of text than the other.

Second, look at the syllabi for both AP English Lit and AP English Language. The College Board provides sample syllabi for each course on its website, and these syllabi can help you understand the topics, reading materials, and skills the College Board expects teachers to teach.

Lastly, check out the College Board’s released AP exam questions for both courses. By studying these questions, you can see what the test-taking experience will be like for both classes and get a sense of the difficulty of each.

Gallop back to the home screen

Read More

Analyzing Character, Setting, Themes, and Language in Literature Essays

How to Write a Literature Essay

Observe how the writer shapes a character’s personality. Study how events unfold and if the story makes sense. Find out how to create suspense and twists.

A strong essay has a clear claim and each paragraph supports it. This sample literature essay uses a strong argument to prove its point.


The characters in literature are often complex. The great literary essays are ones that recognize and explain these complexities. When you’re analyzing the characters in a story, it can help to look for traits that are common across multiple characters. For example, if you see a pattern of knives appearing throughout the play Macbeth, it can be helpful to think about how these knives are used and by whom and what effect they have on the character.

It can also be helpful to choose a dynamic character for your essay. These are the characters that go through many changes and have a lot of growth during the story. These types of characters can make your essay more interesting and entertaining for the reader.

Static characters are those that remain the same throughout the story. These are generally not the best choice for a character analysis essay. Scriptwriters generally use static characters in teen movies and other stories that are aimed at homily or entertainment.


Setting in a literary essay can play a huge role. It can pull the reader into a specific time and place or show how a specific environment influences the characters in the story. This is especially true for historical novels and books.

In your introduction, make sure to provide a clear picture of what is to come in the body of your essay. This is especially important if you’re using a topic sentence, which should leave the reader with a sense of your thesis and the path you will take to prove it.

During the body of your essay, be sure to include lots of quotes from the text. However, remember that it is better to have a smaller number of highly detailed quotes than a large amount of general quotes. Make sure to fully explain how each quote supports your claim and illustrates the literary techniques you are discussing.


Themes are the ideas that connect the different parts of a literature work. They are a deeper level of meaning that can be found within the story and provide a way to analyze it. They can also be used to make connections between different works of fiction and convey a universal message.

For example, the themes of prejudice and fear are explored in a number of different texts including Angie Thomas’ The Hate U Give and Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein. Both stories address the topic of racism and prejudice through characters who are at odds with the society they live in, or whose innate differences set them apart from others.

Another common theme is survival, which often involves a struggle against an outside force, such as the environment or a powerful antagonist. In many cases, this theme explores the enduring human instinct to survive, regardless of circumstance. It is often a key conflict in dystopian novels.


The exact definition of literature has been debated over many times, but most agree that it is any kind of written work that is valued highly by people. This can be anything from a personal letter to a Shakespearean play, but it should contain certain qualities like plot, characters, tone, symbolism and conflict to be considered literature.

In a literature essay, you will often be asked to examine and evaluate literary texts in the form of novels, plays or poems. Depending on the mark scheme for your AP English Literature exam, you may also be asked to explore the way specific stylistic choices have been used in the text or how broader themes have been developed.

When writing your essay, remember that you must use evidence from the two literary texts you have chosen to support your claims. This can include specific quotes that you have taken from the text and paraphrasing of parts of the work to demonstrate how they relate to your argument.

Get to the home screen

Read More

The Power of Mood in Literature

Mood is an Essential Elements in Literature

In literature, mood is an essential element that enriches narratives by shaping emotional landscapes that resonate with readers. Understanding how authors craft mood through language and description reveals the subtle ways they manipulate emotions to create cohesive experiences for their audiences.

Tone, the author’s attitude toward the subject matter of a work, aligns with mood to reinforce an overall emotional experience. Mood can be evoked through various literary elements, such as setting, conflict, imagery, and the tone of voice of the narrator.


Although the terms mood and atmosphere are often used interchangeably, there is a difference between the two literary devices. Atmosphere is generally linked to a place while mood can be evoked from within an individual.

Mood in literature is a powerful tool for writers, helping to bring characters and settings to life. It can be built through the use of imagery and diction, which appeal to a reader’s senses.

Atmosphere is also created in more subtle ways, such as the length and rhythm of sentences, and choice of words. For example, the words “supercalifragilisticexpialidocious” in Mary Poppins convey a cheerful atmosphere. Mood can also be used to convey a somber tone or ridicule a situation. These are examples of mood, but a story’s tone is usually separate from its atmosphere. Atmosphere is an important element in fiction, but it can also be used to add depth to personal essays and other nonfiction writing. It can even be found in poetry, though diction is typically more limited than in other genres.


Mood creates the emotional backdrop that influences how readers feel while reading. It is an important literary device that enhances narrative tension, portrays complex concepts, and allows authors to delve deeper into characters’ emotions.

Conflict in literature is the struggle between opposing forces, usually involving an antagonist and protagonist. However, it can also be man versus nature or even the self. For example, Herman Melville’s Moby Dick is an example of a man versus nature conflict.

Authors use a variety of techniques to establish mood, including setting, imagery, and character reactions to conflict outcomes. Understanding mood helps students understand an author’s purpose and enhances the reader experience. Mood and tone are distinct, as mood describes the overall emotion and atmosphere of the story while tone reflects the attitude of the writer’s character toward the subject matter.


Imagery describes the way things look and feel in a story. It’s a literary technique that works well in conjunction with other tools, like setting, to establish mood in a work of fiction. It also helps to keep readers engaged and connected to the narrative on an emotional level.

Imagery can include descriptions of sight, touch, smell and sound. For example, a writer might write, “The night was black as ever, but bright stars filled the sky in varied and sprinkled constellations.” Or, a story might describe how a character feels through the use of auditory imagery, such as, “She broke the silence with her beautiful piano notes.”

Although imagery is often synonymous with tone, it is actually quite different. Tone is an author’s attitude toward a subject, while mood is the overall emotion and atmosphere created in a piece of literature. An effective writer uses both tone and imagery in their works to create a vivid experience for readers.


While diction plays a role in mood, it’s important to remember that it’s not the same thing as tone. At its most basic, tone conveys an author’s opinion of a subject matter while diction is the specific words used to describe it.

For example, the poet Maya Angelou’s poem “We Shall Overcome” creates a mood of hope and optimism. She uses a number of literary devices to achieve this, including setting, imagery, and diction.

The word choice in this poem is very precise—lime green and forest green have very different meanings, and the adjectives used (such as “melancholy” and “despairing”) have very specific connotations. This is why it’s so important to study the vocabulary of a text before trying to write about its mood. It takes practice to get it right. But when it’s done well, readers will experience the story as the author intended them to. And that’s the purpose of literature!

Dart back to the main page

Read More